Introduction - DSN

Introduction - DSN – The Data Source Name

Description

To connect to a database through PEAR::DB, you have to create a valid DSN - data source name. This DSN consists in the following parts:

  • phptype: Database backend used in PHP (i.e. mysql , odbc etc.)
  • dbsyntax: Database used with regards to SQL syntax etc. When using ODBC as the phptype, set this to the DBMS type the ODBC driver is connecting to. Examples: access, db2, mssql, navision, solid, etc.
  • protocol: Communication protocol to use ( i.e. tcp, unix etc.)
  • hostspec: Host specification (hostname[:port])
  • database: Database to use on the DBMS server
  • username: User name for login
  • password: Password for login
  • proto_opts: Maybe used with protocol
  • option: Additional connection options in URI query string format. options get separated by &

The format of the supplied DSN is in its fullest form:

phptype(dbsyntax)://username:password@protocol+hostspec/database?option=value

Most variations are allowed:

phptype://username:password@protocol+hostspec:110//usr/db_file.db
phptype://username:password@hostspec/database
phptype://username:password@hostspec
phptype://username@hostspec
phptype://hostspec/database
phptype://hostspec
phptype:///database
phptype:///database?option=value&anotheroption=anothervalue
phptype(dbsyntax)
phptype

The currently supported database backends are:

dbase  -> dBase
fbsql  -> FrontBase (functional since DB 1.7.0)
ibase  -> InterBase (functional since DB 1.7.0)
ifx    -> Informix
msql   -> Mini SQL (functional since DB 1.7.0)
mssql  -> Microsoft SQL Server (NOT for Sybase. Compile PHP --with-mssql)
mysql  -> MySQL (for MySQL <= 4.0)
mysqli -> MySQL (for MySQL >= 4.1) (requires PHP 5) (since DB 1.6.3)
oci8   -> Oracle 7/8/9
odbc   -> ODBC (Open Database Connectivity)
pgsql  -> PostgreSQL
sqlite -> SQLite
sybase -> Sybase

With an up-to-date version of DB, you can use a second DSN format

phptype(syntax)://user:pass@protocol(proto_opts)/database

If your database, option values, username or password contain characters used to delineate DSN parts, you can escape them via URI hex encodings:

: = %3a   / = %2f   @ = %40
+ = %2b   ( = %28   ) = %29
? = %3f   = = %3d   & = %26

Please note, that some features may be not supported by all database backends. Please refer to the PEAR DB extensions status document located at: /pear/base/dir/DB/doc/STATUS to get a detailed list about what features are supported by which backend.

Example

Connect to database through a socket

mysql://user@unix(/path/to/socket)/pear

Connect to database on a non standard port

pgsql://user:pass@tcp(localhost:5555)/pear

Connect to SQLite on a Unix machine using options

sqlite:////full/unix/path/to/file.db?mode=0666

Connect to SQLite on a Windows machine using options

sqlite:///c:/full/windows/path/to/file.db?mode=0666

Connect to MySQLi using SSL

mysqli://user:pass@localhost/pear?key=client-key.pem&cert=client-cert.pem

Connecting to MS Access sometimes requires admin as the user name

odbc(access)://admin@/datasourcename

Connecting to ODBC with a specific cursor

odbc(access)://admin@/datasourcename?cursor=SQL_CUR_USE_ODBC
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Last updated: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 — Download Documentation
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